F.47种句型的公式

2011-03-06 12:04:31 by 【6yang】, 109 visits, 收藏 | 返回

每种句型都可以用一个公式来代表,例如:“SIV”,“STVN”,“SLVAP”,“S FVN + PaP”,“SDVNthatCl”.下面列出了代表某些词的缩写形式:

S= Subject(主语)                            PaP Past Participle(过

O= Object(宾语)                            去分词)

C= Complement(补语)                    N= Noun or Pronoun(名

IO= Indirect Object(间接                   词或代词)

宾语)                                               R= Reflexive Pronoun(反

DO= Direct Object(直接                    身代词)

宾语)                                               A= Adjective(形容词)

IV= Intransitive Verb(不                     P= Preposition(介词)

及物动词)                                        APAdverb of Placeor

TVTransitive Verb(及                     Adverbial Particleas

物动词)                                           inoutupaway

DV= Dative Verb(双宾动                   (地点副词或副词性小

词)                                                  品词)

LVLinking Verb(系动                    

词)                                                  WCl = Interrogative-

FV= Factitive Verb(宾补                    Clause,(疑问词引起的动词)

                                                 句,由whether

I= Infinitive(不定式)                       whatwhichwho

G= Gerund(动名词)                        whomwhosewhere

PrP = Present Participle                        whenwhyhow

(现在分词)                                    起)

 

That-Cl= Noun-Clause                         inn.=innumreablehun-

that引起的名词从                           dreds or thousands(无

句)                                                  数,成百上千)

“·”表示它前后的词构成成语,如IVPLVAP.,TVNPLVPaP,它们包含2个或3个词。

1341  一个“+”号表示这个句型包含2个基本成分,即主语及不及物动词,如:

S+IV                                            S+IVAP

2个“+”号表示这个句型包含有3个基本成分,即主语,及物动词及宾语,如:

S+TV+N                                      S+IVP+ thatCl

S+LVAP+G

或指另外3个成分,如主语、系动词及补语:

S+LV+A                                       S+LV+ that-Cl

S+LV+PN

3个“+”号表示这个句型包含4个成分:主语、双宾动词、间接宾语及直接宾语,如:

S+DV+N+N                                 S+DV+N+W-Cl

S+DV+N+ that-Cl

也可以是另外4个成分,如主语、宾补动词、宾语及(宾语)补语:

S+FV+N+A                                  S+FV +N +PaP

S+IVP+N+I

这里我们可以了解一个十分重要的事实,即英语句子是很简单的,它少则包含两个成分,多则包含四个成分。

了解了公式及图解的意义,现在就可开始藉助它们研究47种谓语类型或句型。注意:句子末尾的星号表示这个句子将在每一类句型讲完之后进行图解。

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